Evolution of monogamous marriage by maximization of inclusive?tness. The same is true for less extreme sacrifices. But the rules of competition and competitive advantage remain the same.
The companys wireless music systems place the user interface in the cloud, enabling users to control the portable device from a smartphone. Bowles,., Group competition, reproductive leveling, and the evolution of human altruism. Service contracts allow the manufacturer to keep service in-house and capture more of the value from service efficiencies.
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I don't think it makes sense to conceive of groups of organisms (in particular, human societies) as sitting at the top of a fractal hierarchy with genes at the bottom, with natural selection applying to each level in parallel ways. Just like group selection models, these approaches break the total effect of natural selection down into parts linked to different variance components. By contrast, individual selection predicts that punishment is just a way to compensate the victim or, as contractualist philosophers would put it, to restore fairness. It has led them to maintain both that group selection is empirically indistinguishable from gene selection and that it is the only theory that can explain of a raft of empirical phenomena, from punishing free riders in experimental games to obeying the categorical imperative when. Or, in a situation that Pinker skips, the net effect of what's going on within groups is zero (a "stable equilibria and all the action comes from the relative contribution of each group to the evolutionary change. But oddly enough, this research has been interpreted as evidence for group selection, because of the outcome of one variant of the procedure.
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