may illustrate James' stance somewhat simply with reference to the daily horoscope that one may read in a newspaper or online. In 1872, one of Jamess former chemistry professors, now Harvards President, offered him a job teaching physiology. . Though thoughtful and reflective pessimists, optimists, and subjectivists can live with it, he would not, because its pragmatic implications would render life not worth living. . This can, but need not, lead to knowledge about that fact, achieved by perceiving its relations to other given facts. . Freud, who met James in 1909, said he hoped to be as fearless as James in the face of approaching death. Characteristically dressed in a colorful shirt and a Norfolk jacket with a boutonniere, he must have seemed slightly bohemian. James describes himself as a supernaturalist (rather than a materialist) of a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to subscribe to popular Christianity. .
All of these can be essay about politics and government logically coherent positions, but each of them minimizes the evil we experience in the world and trivializes our natural reaction of regret as pointless. . In the fourth lecture, James states that our world can be viewed as one (monism) or as an irreducible many (pluralism). . The key to vitality is tennis, skating, bicycling, and, above all, healthy habits. His training in hard science was making it impossible for him to believe in human freedom and, thus, in the value of struggling for moral ideals; the despair of materialism was leading him to the depression of determinism. . We cannot finally separate the thinker from the thought. The Pragmatic Method, the Pragmatic Theory of Truth, the Pragmatic Approach to Belief. This is a classic intellectual biography of James by one of his famous students. To that extent, the truth of the horoscope is established in practice - as opposed to a remorseless skepticism which automatically wipes away any chance that the horoscope could possess something resembling truth, the mind instead is open to the possibility that there might. The invasion of the Philippines that followed appalled him and inspired a famous essay distributed to millions of readers, The Moral Equivalent of War. The important thing, however, is that the horoscope needs to be a live possibility for the believer - we may assume that the presence of horoscopes in daily newspapers indicates that, for a large number of people, it is, and thus horoscopes do not fall.