based on coarse proxies for socioeconomic status such as single indicators of education or employment status. He left behind three young daughters which he will never get to see on the outside again. Sentencing Kelley Yiannakis CJ 200 September 8, 2013 Carl Dewyer Sentencing The criminal justice system has many important aspects within, the most important one is sentencing. These include information on victim characteristics like offendervictim relationship, offense details like weapon use, and additional offender information like substance abuse and family background histories. Presumptive guidelines place a higher level of control over judicial sentencing discretion than voluntary guidelines. The government wanted a major deterrent for some serious crimes. Although research evidence regarding their cost effectiveness and crime-deterrent capabilities so far has been less than encouraging, intermediate punishments do provide for greater proportionality in punishment by offering a range of sanctions between probation and prison. Social Problems, 38, 247266. There has been some discussion of creating three-dimensional guidelines that incorporate other factors like offender culpability or amenability to treatment, but no state has yet taken this approach. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 78(1 155176.
For instance, very little empirical research focuses on the role of the prosecutor in sentencing, despite qualitative and anecdotal evidence indicating this persons importance. Practitioners, including correctional officials, prosecutors, and even judges, often support sentencing guidelines because they reduce uncertainty in sentencing, increase predictability in corrections, and allow for improved resource management. The first of these laws was passed in Washington State in 1993, but they have quickly spread; currently, just over half the states and the federal government have some form of three strikes law. Sentencing research for sentencing reform. Presumptive guidelines legally mandate judges to sentence within prescribed sentence ranges that are presumed to be appropriate unless there are unusual circumstances in the case.
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Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. Not all sentencing guidelines have enjoyed unqualified success. However, in a landmark case in 2005, the constitutionality of the federal guidelines was once again challenged, as described below. Mandatory sentences must be imposed regardless of the person? A number of jurisdictions have expanded their community punishment options and placed increasing emphasis on intermediate sanctions as alternatives to jail and prison. The effectiveness of correctional treatment: A survey of treatment evaluation studies. Legal advocates, civil libertarians, and liberal scholars laud guidelines for encouraging greater consistency and uniformity in sentencing; crime control politicians, law enforcement agents, and conservative scholars support them for the certainty and severity of punishment they provide. Narrowing the judges focus to only punishment and retribution would not serve the initial purpose of having a justice system at all. Sentencing Commission reported in 1995 that whites account for 52 percent of all crack users and African-Americans, 38 percent.