cultures, we try to harmonize empirical observations in order to describe nature and to be able to interpret and predict. The pictures in this article illustrate some of the remarkable products of Islamic science. Whereas Western science favours reductionist, mechanistic and quan-titative methods, traditional knowledge observes natural phenomena from a global point of view. Rather, they have no need for creation myths because they live in a resource-rich environment of consistent climate, with personal supportive human interaction. But even if we think of great Renaissance thinkers, such as Galileo Galilei, Leonardo da Vinci or Sir Isaac Newton, as the first 'true scientists we should not forget that all civilizations throughout history have produced and accumulated knowledge to understand and explain the world. They also work at a specific level of analysis; for example, the physics of elementary particles does not contribute to the interpretation of the mechanism of muscle contraction. To" Bertold Brecht in his play about Galileo: The aim of science is not to open the door to infinite wisdom, but to put a limit to infinite error. This new history is based on a non-modernist and non-postmodernist assertion and illustration of our ability to understand others' contextual intent instead of being misled by their words - even across cultures and time: In order to buttress this explanation for the commonality of human. Although it has attained a dominant position, other knowledge systems do exist, and we should accept that our understanding of science is one knowledge system among many others ( Nakashima, 2000 ).
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5, rather, this book is based a two-fold claim. . Slowly, the importance and influence of traditional knowledge diminished because of the success of modern science and technology and the economic power that accompanies. Similarly, many countries took equally as long to grant women the same rights as men and thereby enable them to participate in scientific enterprise. Science and technology in Africa were once quite advanced, comparable to European levels of the time, in the fields of human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, food conservation, fermentation, metallurgy and the preparation of soap and cosmetics ( Mazrui Ade Ajayi, 1998 ). In pre-colonial Africa, specialists knew well the characteristics of the local climate and soil, and were able to give expert advice on where and when to grow crops. In the book James 5:14-15(English Standard Version) it states, "Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. 12 Sniderman, Brody, and Tetlock 1991, 115.
This faith in science gave rise to the philosophical movement called positivism, which led to a widespread trust in science and technology and influenced social theory. These transcendental values are the source of human beliefs that guide humanity towards social and ethical rules and to the observation of nature ). The safeguards for independence are free inquiry, free thought, free speech, tolerance and the willingness to arbitrate disputes on the basis of evidence. As immigrants reveal, the affective and cognitive consistency that is the result of the residue of long biographies of cognitive transactions 12 can be surpassed easily.